The modal auxiliaries are: can, could, may, might, shall, should, will, would, must, and ought. Dare, ought to, need, and dare can also be included in the above list of modal verbs. “You must obey your parents” and “I can swim.” “must” and “can” are modal auxiliaries in these sentences. Modal auxiliaries are defined as verbs such as may, might, can, could, ought, should, etc., which are used in place of helping verbs in sentences. They are supporting verbs that should be used in conjunction with other main verbs to express attitudes. Modals are sometimes called modal verbs, modal auxiliaries verbs, or modal auxiliaries. Their behaviour is uneven in English and different from regular verbs like ‘play, work, teach, behave’ Modals are helpful in communication.
Auxiliary means helping verb
CBSE/HBSE Class 9,10, and 12th English Grammar – Modals Auxiliaries
Class 9 is the beginning of learning English grammar for students, and modal auxiliaries are the basic part of the process of learning the English language. Indian students, especially rural students, face problems in learning English grammar. Here, I will be writing modal auxiliaries in a simple and lucid language, which will help the students understand English grammar. I have designed this article on modal auxiliaries in such a way that the students of all classes of CBSE/HBSE, 9th, 10th, and 12th, will benefit.
The modals can, could, may, might, shall, should, will, would, must, and ought are referred to as defective verbs.
Modal Auxiliaries for all Classes: Examples
The modal verbs are: can, could, may, might, shall, should, will, would, must, and ought. Dare, ought to, need, and dare can also be included in the above list of modal verbs.
The function of modal verbs: Modal Auxiliaries for all Classes
Modal verbs are used to express the following functions:
The auxiliary be is used in the following way:
- Forms the continuous tense: I am writing. They are working. He was swimming.
- Used in passive sentences: The door was closed. The school was opened on Sunday.
- It indicates a plan: I am to see him tomorrow.
- Used in command: father says you are to go to school.
- Used in the perfect tense: I have worked. He has been working hard.
- Have to indicate obligation: I have to finish my work by afternoon. He has to do his duty.
- Had to is used to express obligation in the past: I had to finish my food in two minutes. He had to move alone.
- Have to and had to are used in questions and negatives: They have to follow-They don’t have to follow-Do they have to follow.
Modal Auxiliaries for all Classes: CAN, COULD, MAY, MIGHT
1. Modal ‘Can’ expresses ability or capacity:
Examples of Modal ‘can’:
- He can lift a hundred kilogram of weight.
- I can swim at high tide.
- Can you solve this sum?
- Can you lift this box for me?
- She can sing while playing piano.
2. Modal can be used for seeking permission as May seems to be more formal:
- It is Sunday today, I can go to the office.
- Can I go now?
- Can I stay at your house?
- You can use my car.
3. May is used to expressing Possibility in affirmative sentences. Can is used in the same corresponding interrogative and negative sentences.
- It may rain today.
- She may be at home.
- Can this be true?
- It can’t be true.
- You may go now.
- ……………. God bless you with a son! (May/Can/Should)
Compare the sentences
- It can’t be true. (Impossibility)
- It may not be true. (Improbability)
4. May is to express WISH:
- May you live long!
- May God bless you with success!
5. COULD and MIGHT: Are the past equivalent of Can and May.:
- When I was younger I could run fast. (ability)
- I could swim fast when I was a boy. (ability)
- The teacher said you could/might go now. (Permission)
- He wondered if it could be true. (Possibility)
- He said if it could rain today(Possibility)
- I couldn’t solve the sum as it was very difficult.
6. MIGHT is used for a degree of dissatisfaction.
- You might pay a little more attention to secure more in the examination.
- She might pay a little more attention to her looks.
7. Can, could, may, might can be used with “Perfect Infinitive”:
- Sita is not there. Where can she have gone?
- Ram could have accepted the offer.
- Rashmi might have gone with Simran.
- Why did you drive so fast? You might have injured someone.
Modal Auxiliaries for all Classes: SHALL, SHOULD, WILL, WOULD
- SHALL: FOR FIRST PERSON
WILL: FOR ALL
Both will and shall express the future.
- I shall be fifty next year.
- We will need more money for college.
- When shall we see again?
- Tomorrow will be a holiday.
2. SHOULD AND WOULD are used as the past equivalent of shall and will:
- I hoped that I should get a better score this time.
- The teacher said that he would be fifty next year.
- Prince said that he would help him with the examination.
- He would sit for hours doing homework. (past habit).
3. SHOULD expresses DUTY and OBLIGATION:
- One should obey laws.
- You should obey your parents.
- She should keep her promise.
- Parents should take care of their kids.
4. Should is used for advice and suggestions:
- She should consult a doctor.
- We should do yoga to keep ourselves healthy.
- You should take a balanced diet near examinations.
- Students should work hard to excel in life.
- You should learn Mathematics to succeed in Computer Science.
5. Should is used to express purpose:
- Walk fast lest you should miss the train.
- Seema should work hard to clear JEE.
- Every citizen should work hard for the progress of their country.
6. Should expresses polite request:
- I should be thankful to my teacher if he can help me.
- One should be thankful if God gives us happiness.
7. Should is also used to express probability:
- The teacher should be in the class now.
- The professor should be in the library in the evening.
Modal Auxiliaries for all Classes: MUST, OUGHT TO
1. Must express Necessity and Obligation.
- You must improve your English to excel in life.
- You must reach early in the examination.
- You must obey the orders of your office.
2. Must express the near future or the present:
- Yesterday we had to get up early in the morning.
3. Must is used when obligation comes from the speaker.
- I must be on a diet.( as it is my idea).
- I have to be on a diet.( as the doctor advised).
- I must go for walk. ( to keep me healthy).
4. Must express logical certainty.
- Living in the such a hard situation must be difficult.
- He must have left already.
5. Ought To express Moral Obligation or Desirability
- We ought to love our country.
- You ought to help the poor.
- She ought to know better.
6. Ought To express probability.
- Prices ought to come down in the future.
- The book ought to be very useful.
7. Ought to express right or sensible things.
- You ought to work hard to excel in life.
- One ought to read more to have control over language.
- You ought to do yoga to be healthy.
- Elders ought not to smoke before kids.
- You ought not to disobey your teachers.
8. Ought to is used in case of strong belief or expectation in the future.
- Our team ought to win.
- You ought to pass to get a job.
- The school ought to have closed at 2.30 p.m.
9. Ought to have is used when we realize our mistake.
- She ought to have listened to me.
- Government ought to have given money to the poor.
10. Ought and should are used in the same way.
- We ought to/should obey the rules of the land.
Modal Auxiliaries for all Classes: HAVE TO, HAD TO
1. Have To express obligation and necessity
- You have to look after your old mother.
- You have to finish your question in time.
2. Have To exexpressdvice
- You have to follow the rules.
- You have to obey your elders.
3. Have To exprexpressclusion.
- You have to your plan for success.
4. Have to express something important.
- One has to be a hard worker to succeed in life.
- You have cleared all your taxes before July.
Modal Auxiliaries for all Classes: USED TO, NEED, DARE
1. Used To express a discontinued habit.
- There used to be a temple here.
- He used to be a teacher before.
- I used to live in a village when I was a kid.
- She used to work hard when she was a student.
2. Need modal is used without ‘to’
- HaHard works the only option you need to do.
- He need not attend the class.
- I need hardly his help now.
- You needn’t have waited for the result.
- You need not come today.
3. Need is commonly used in negatives and interrogatives.
- Do you need to attend the class now?
- She doesn’t need to meet him.
- You need to be careful while driving on highways.
4. Need expresses obligation and necessity.
- Need I attend school in extra time.
- Need you to solve the quiz.
4. Dare modal is different from the ordinary verb dare.
- You dare not take such a bad step again.
- How dare you to abuse me.
- He dare not do that.
- She doesn’t dare speak to me.
Modal Auxiliaries for all Classes: 56 Exercises for students of classes 9, 10, and 12th
Fill in the blanks with suitable modal auxiliary verbs are given in the brackets
1. You ……………. do as I say.(shall/will/can)
……………. you open the door, please? (shall/will/can)
2. We ……………. help the needy. (should/could/would)
3. Work hard otherwise you ……………. fail. (will/can/shall).
4. You ……………. get a prize. (will/shall/can).
5. ……………. you live long! (May/Can/Will)
6 ……………. God bless you with a son! (May/Can/Should)
7 ……………. Do you have a cup of tea? (Would/Should/Could)
8. A servant ……………. obey his master. (must/can/will)
9. We …………… obey our parents. (should/would/could)
10 ……………. Do you like to come with me? (would/should/could)
11. He ……………. swims across the river. (can/would/must)
12. You …….. pay all your taxes. (must/might)
13. He ……… play football when he was young. (will/used to)
14. If I were rich I ……… buy a car. (would/shall)
15.…….. he lives long! (can/may)
16. A student ……… respect his/her teacher. (must/would)
17. What ……… Do you like to have in supper? (would/shall)
18. We ……… drive carefully. (would/must)
19. You are quite well. You ……… not go to the doctor. (need/should)
20. She expects that her son …….. return. (may/can)
21. She advised that I ……… curtail expenditure. (should/can)
22. he ……… not have left alone as it was raining heavily. (can/must)
23. If we request her, she …….. give a lift. (must/might)
24. ……… If you work hard you will pass. (should/can)
25. I am sure the Principal ……… be in his room. (might/must)
26. ….. our king live long! (May/Will)
27. Make haste lest you ……… get late. (will/should)
28. My friend did not help me though he ……… have helped. (could/will)
29. He went there so that he …….. borrow money. (can/might)
30 ……… you please help my son? (Could/Might)
31. I …… not go outside now. (dare/ought to)
32. She …….. dance very well. (can/may)
33. You ……. give up smoking. (should/shall)
34. There …….. be some more buses. (ought to/would)
35. A servant …….. obey his master. (can/must)
36. ……. you wait for some time? (Should/Could)
37. How …….. Do you insult me? (may/done)
38. It ……. happen to anyone. (should/can)
39. You ……. consult some doctor. (must/would)
40. I …….. rather starve than steal. (would/may)
41. She ……. swims very well. (can/shall)
42. You ……. work hard this year. (must/would)
43. …….. I come in, sir? (May/Will)
44. My grandmother…….to sing classic songs.(ought,will,can,used)
45. The teacher said, “Yes, you …come in.” (can, may, will, should)
46. It is Sunday today, I ….go to othe ffice.(may, might, can, could)
47. You …carry any bag. It is available at the store. (Shouldn’t, will not, cannot, needn’t)
48. It .. happens to anyone. (should, can, would, none)
49. You…consult some good doctor. (must, need to, shall, none).
50. You..go now(shall, may, would, none)
51. We eat so that we..live.
52. I ..swim when I was young.
53. You..obey your parents.
54. I ..like to have coffee.
55. ..God gives you the courage to face it.
56. When I was younger I ….run fast.
Readlearnexcel English Grammar:
- 12 Tenses in English Grammar: The Beginning of the English Learning Language
- English Grammar: Active and Passive Voices with Examples of 12 Tenses
- Direct and Indirect Speech: Steps & Rules to Change Narration
- Modal Auxiliaries for all Classes: PDF
- Articles in English: The Beginning of Learning English Grammar PDF
- Modal Auxiliaries for all Classes