Pedagogy, the heart of teaching, is the way you teach in your class, not what you read about pedagogy in books. Pedagogy, the heart of teaching, and methods of teaching and learning bring academic discipline to the classroom.
Education is a necessary tool to make a person self-reliant. Hence, there is a big demand for a high-quality education to live a happy life.
“Pedagogy, most commonly understood as the approach to teaching, is the theory and practice of learning, and how this process influences, and is influenced by, the social, political and psychological development of learners”. Wikipedia
According to Oxford Dictionary, pedagogy/ˈpɛdəɡɒdʒi/, pedagogy pronunciation, a noun, “the method and practice of teaching, especially as an academic subject or theoretical concept”.
Parents keep changing their children’s schools because they lack confidence that their children are receiving a quality education that will prepare them for the future and higher education. School education is the most valuable part of education because it makes the students confident in learning and brings academic discipline to their further education.
Academic discipline gives students confidence in their career development and is important in all aspects of their lives, from personal relationships to peer relationships. In this article, ReadlearnExcel will try to figure out the different pedagogical methods for teaching and learning academic discipline among students. These methods will give teachers in Indian schools a practical way to help their students do well in school.
:Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi, Swiss social reformer and educator, is known as the Father of Modern Education. The modern era of education started with him and his spirit and ideas led to the great educational reforms in Europe in the nineteenth century”.
According to Pestalozzi, ”
The interests and needs of the child
A child-centred rather than teacher-centred approach to teaching
Active rather than passive participation in the learning experience”
Definition of Pedagogy: The Heart of Teaching
According to Oxford Dictionary, pedagogy/ˈpɛdəɡɒdʒi/, a noun, “the method and practice of teaching, especially as an academic subject or theoretical concept”.
The methods of teaching and practices of a teacher in the classroom are called “pedagogy.”
Pedagogy is must for those who want to become good teachers and they need to understand different pedagogical skills to deliver their best in the classroom.
Pedagogy assists teachers in approaching their teaching style and the various methods they employ to obtain feedback and assessments from their students in order to get the most out of their teachings.
While creating lesson plans, teachers must learn various pedagogical techniques and skills based on the age and environment of the children in order to find the best methods to communicate the relevant information they want to impart and have the best teaching experience in their classes.
In this article, I will share my experiences as a teacher for the last 25 years. I have been imparting training to teachers and students at different levels and in different circumstances. I have been a continuous visitor to the primary and elementary schools in rural as well as urban areas, where I get different types of experiences with the students and teachers. I am fond of interacting with students and always believe in the concept of “learning together.” Teachers at different levels of schooling come and interact with each other at CRC, SCERT, NCERT, and at the district level under the guidance of senior teachers who share their experiences so that the students get the ultimate pedagogical solutions for the teachers.
The Main Points of Effective Pedagogy
There are five main points of discussion for an effective pedagogy to enhance the student’s learning and help them acquire the necessary competencies.
The following are the five main pillars of effective pedagogy:
- inclusive practise where the children can develop the ability to learn.
- Pedagogy should be motivational, where teachers can motivate students to develop learning techniques. Motivation is essential to satisfy a student’s needs and interests.
- Quality education is another component of pedagogy where the quality of education matters.
- Pedagogy should be consistent and clear.
- An innovative approach is always required to implement the pedagogy in the classroom.
Pedagogical Skills: A Method for Teaching and Learning in Classroom
Pedagogical skills are the teachers’ ability to instruct and manage the classroom. These skills are different for different levels and areas of the school. Teachers’ goals and the target they want to achieve will help the teachers design a strategy for their class. Teachers learn from their experiences and apply these skills in the classroom.
- Communication Skills: Effective communication between a kid and teacher is a must for effective teaching in the classroom.
- Workability Situation: Different students have different needs, and they all depend upon the area and social structure in the area.
- Collaboration and coordination: For a student to reach his or her academic goals, he or she needs to talk to and work with his or her parents in the right way.
- Participation: Make sure that students take part in all activities so that they can grow as people.
- Compassion and love: When you use your pedagogy strategy, always treat the students with compassion and love.
- Progressive Teaching: Always focus on teaching in a way that helps students grow in the way that the teacher wants them to.
- Social constructivism: This can also be referred to as a “progressive teaching style,” which is an alternative to traditional teaching methods. It emphasises the notion that children are active as opposed to passive learners. Constructivist pedagogy, also known as “invisible pedagogy,” places the child at the centre of the learning process.
- Behaviorism: A teacher’s pedagogy is to be student-centred and always vigilant towards students’ behavior, as it can make or break the student’s chance.
- Age Factor: Plan your pedagogy according to the age group of the students.
- Effective interaction: There should be effective communication between a teacher and a student.
- Friendly Behavior: The teacher’s friendly behaviour helps the students gain confidence in their teacher.
- Understanding the family background: A student must be dealt with as per his or her family background.
- Individual attention: Individual attention should be the focal point of your pedagogy.
- Understanding health conditions: A student’s health is important to achieving academic goals, so a plan should be made based on the student’s health conditions.Students with disabilities need special teaching methods because they can’t keep up with other students.
- Note the weak and strong points: Teachers must design their pedagogy as per the weak and strong areas of the students.
- Understanding the hidden talents: An individual has his or her own interests and hobbies; therefore, plan your lesson as per the students’ tastes.
- Proper attention should be given to individual tastes and interests.
- Activity with Students is part of Pedagogy: Involve students to participate in all activites like celebrations of festivals and days help the students to develop the confidence in school and their academics will progress.
- Play-based learning: It has been found out that play based learning has been proved to be an extremely effective method of improving children’s socio-emotional and academic development. Play has been found to contribute most to a child’s development when it is regarded as meaningful, i.e. has the explicit goal of learning.
- Company of adults: Children learn in a better way in the company of adults and we have seen in joint families where a child is exposed with many adults learn the things easily than to children placed in more teacher-directed and child-centred environments.
- Learning should be based on cross-curricular and includes a varied school life.
- Pedagogy is not universal and it changes as per the circumstances and location.
How can teachers improve their pedagogical skills?
Teachers must learn effective ways to run their classes smoothly, as it has been observed that most teachers do not change their teaching methods regardless of the time or situational requirements. Most classrooms are dominated by teachers, and students develop the habit of being passive listeners. It’s like one-way traffic. Teachers believe that if a student asks a question, they will become impatient, and I have observed that teachers are not liberals in their teaching; thus, they must work according to the needs of the students. I’ll go over some practical pedagogical skills that teachers should learn and use in their classrooms.
1. Padagogy Regarding the Evaluation of Students’ Performance
Students’ performance can be evaluated through teacher-student interaction or student-student interaction. Students’ performance can be evaluated by exams, and a report can be made to improve the student’s learning outcomes. Evaluations of students’ performance are different in different schools, and even within states, evaluations of students’ performance are different. Academic criteria are adopted in schools to get feedback, so the timetable and classroom situation are considered.
2. Pedagogy in the Classroom
There are different levels of students in any given class. Therefore, a teacher needs to assess each student’s level to choose the reading materials. Sometimes, it is very difficult to assess a large class. We, as teachers, must try to make a group among the students.
3. An Educational Approach Based on Democracy and Descent
Sometimes, it is noted that teachers don’t listen to their students and instead try to show their authority. So, for the teacher to have a good relationship with the students, he or she should be kind and helpful.
4. Updated Knowledge of the Latest Pedagogies
As we all know, pedagogy is the heart of teaching, and we talk so much in class about methods and techniques of teaching, but unfortunately, the outcome of the teaching is not satisfactory. Do we know what the issue is? The problem lies in the lack of knowledge, and teachers are not serious in government schools even after proper training in pedagogy. Hence, the teachers must update their knowledge of pedagogy as the methods and systems are changing as all things are digitally improved, but teachers are still adopting the old pattern of teaching where the teacher is the central figure in the class.
5. Implementation of New Methods and Techniques of Reading in the Classroom
Reading should be easy and interesting so that the students in the class don’t get bored. Hard reading may spoil the purpose of learning. This problem can be tackled by giving small passages at a time. This might take a few days. Then you can ask some questions in that paragraph. Ask about a few difficult words from that paragraph. Examine the students’ levels and take appropriate action.
We generally find that in a classroom, when students are asked to do reading, they are least interested. So why? Generally, students feel burdened with reading syllabus books. Therefore, the syllabus should be attractive to increase the level of reading. Students have different interests within a class, and therefore, the common area of interest has to be found by the teachers. I have come into contact with the students when visiting and teaching the class.
6. Use of Digital Technology in the Classroom
Government and private schools are adopting the latest technologies like computers, digital boards, and digital classrooms, but our teachers are hesitant to use the new technology because they feel that the way they are teaching is the best way to teach.
7. Active Participation of Students in Different Curriculum Activities
Extracurricular activities are the utmost important in a student’s life. Students are under pressure during examinations, as well as performance pressure to earn good grades. In such situations, additional activities are required. A student cannot be forced to read books and become intelligent. Extracurricular activities are also essential for students’ overall development.
8. Develop a student database to capture the background knowledge of students.
The children don’t take an interest in reading because their background is different from what they are asked to read. We found that the syllabus doesn’t attract the students because they feel isolated while reading in class; therefore, the syllabus should be prepared in such a way that the students feel attached. Sometimes reading doesn’t create interest among students because of cultural differences at an early age. “Have you ever been to England?” What is the climate like? interest in reading because their background is different from what they are asked to read. We found that the syllabus doesn’t attract the students because they feel isolated while reading in class; therefore, the syllabus should be prepared in such a way that the students feel attached. Sometimes reading doesn’t create interest among students because of cultural differences at an early age. Have you ever been to England? “What is the climate like?” If a student is asked to read in India about England, the student feels different as he or she is not aware of England at the school level and tries to think about and feel the burden as he has never been to England. Therefore, the teacher should explain the background of England first and then ask the students to read. There will be an improvement in learning to read.
9. The Role of Appreciation in the Classroom
Appreciation for good work always plays a positive role in the classroom. If a student answers the question, the teacher needs to appreciate the student. It is noted that there is a lack of appreciation among teachers. Hence, teachers must look into this matter and should develop the habit of appreciating the students for a small thing.
10. Organizing PTM is part of effective Pedagogy.
Parent-teacher meetings are an important part of the school curriculum and the best way to understand the students. Students’ parents in rural areas are not frequent visitors to the school, so teachers should ask and convince the parents to attend the PTM. Such meetings will benefit both teachers and students in developing better interactions. Students will be cautious and start working in a better way.
11. Tours and excursions help you learn
Tours and excursions always help the students learn a lot of things. Therefore, the school must plan tours and excursions to benefit the students, and this can be the best way to make students’ learning strong.
12. Encouraging Students for Sports Activities
Sports activities are part of the school curriculum, but unfortunately, sports activities are almost nonexistent in the school. During the 1980s, PTI used to teach students in almost all the schools. Now, things are different, and games have become just a formality in the school as there are no sports facilities in government schools.
13. Reducing teacher dominance in the classroom
Reducing teacher dominance in the class must be done as the internet and other soft techniques are proving to be a great asset to the students. The students should be listened to, and teachers must reduce their dominance in the classroom. Interaction and learning together are the best ways to be adopted in the classroom.
14. Proper Implementation of the Timetable in the Classroom
Create a timetable that meets the needs of the class while keeping the weak students in mind. A school schedule is used to organise school-related activities. It’s beneficial to students, teachers, classrooms, and other resources. A school schedule is usually rotated every week or every two weeks.
A curriculum consists of numerous subjects that every student must master. However, each pupil has unique interests. There are certain subjects that students enjoy studying, and they only wish to study those subjects. Without a schedule, students will only study their favoured subjects, resulting in failure in all other classes. A well-designed schedule is the answer to this issue. The school schedule guarantees that all subjects receive equal time so that pupils can properly learn.
15. Discuss Your Pedagogical Skills With Other Teachers
Pedagogy, which is the practise of teaching, is one of the principal subjects that teachers learn. The study of pedagogy encompasses a vast array of topics, the most of which fall under teaching theory or practical teaching methods. If you’re interested in becoming a teacher, it may be beneficial to gain a deeper understanding of the pedagogical skills professionals employ practically constantly. Pedagogical skills should be discussed with other teachers to make the teaching effective in the classroom.
16. If you are lacking somewhere, ask for more training.
If a teacher feels the need for classroom management training, they must request that management arrange for a training to improve pedagogy for effective teaching.
17. Visits Different Schools in Different Areas
Visiting different schools help students to learn many things like friendship, cooperation, and leadership qualities among students. School trips, including visits to museums, theatres, religious centres, and historical sites, as well as cultural or sports-related residentials, encourage students to learn and interact with their peers in a manner distinct from the classroom, and are often the most memorable experiences for them.
18. Improving Communication Skills
Communication skills plays a vital role in the classroom. Teachers must improve the communication skills as effective communication is an art, and there is always room for improvement, growth, and expansion. This is why teachers must always continue to develop this skill to impart effective teachings. Possessing strong communication skills will positively impact both teachers and students.
19. Improve Your Reading Skills
I have come into contact with the students when visiting and teaching the class. Students generally like something new, like computers and painting work. These topics attract students’ interest in learning to read, but unfortunately, the lack of infrastructure and proper training of teachers reduce the momentum of learning to read. Therefore, the teachers should ensure the area of interest is to be found to increase their skills in reading. Therefore, the teachers should emphasize on developing reading techniques to materilise the concept of reading.
Telling stories is familiar to most students. It is popular among teachers. It is easy to teach: we’ve been reading and hearing stories most of our lives. However, when we start telling the stories of business to students, they feel indifferent as they don’t create interest among students. Therefore, discourse should be of students’ interest to give better results in learning reading. Knowing the discourse pattern lets the reader know what to expect and therefore increases comprehensibility.
20. Feel the Teaching Strategies by developing background knowledge of students.
The children don’t take an interest in reading because their background is different from what they are asked to read. We found that the syllabus doesn’t attract the students because they feel isolated while reading in class; therefore, the syllabus should be prepared in such a way that the students feel attached. Sometimes reading doesn’t create interest among students because of cultural differences at an early age. Have you ever been to England? What is the climate like? ” If a student is asked to read in India about England, the student feels different as he or she is not aware of England at the school level and tries to think and feel the burden as he has never been to England. Therefore, the teacher should explain the background of England first and then ask the students to read. There will be an improvement in learning to read.
22. Divide the class into groups.
Teachers should divide the class into different groups according to their level and interests to make learning to read effectively. Generally, they don’t take this seriously and don’t form groups. So, we can say that making groups always plays an important role in the reading process.
23. Develop connections among students.
Connections always play an important role everywhere and are also applicable in the reading process.
Therefore, extended practice, assessing formally and informally, plays an important role in enhancing students’ learning of reading skills. The above points need to be considered to enhance reading skills among students at the school level.
Child Development and Pedagogy
Teaching methods are the procedures, techniques, or methods of teaching that are used, typically in accordance with a predetermined plan. The term “teaching method” refers to the general principles, or pedagogy, that are used in the classroom. There are two types of teaching theories or “approaches”: teacher-centered and student-centered. One pedagogical approach at national level is not feasible as the social and infrastructure are different in different areas.
Make all primary and secondary classrooms into literacy-rich environments.
A literacy-rich environment, which is full of print, word walls, books, newspapers, textbooks, and reading materials, not only helps academic growth but also stimulates and supports speaking, listening, reading, and writing in a variety of authentic ways—through print and digital media. Make it a goal for classrooms in the school to have a welcoming, print-rich atmosphere that encourages independent reading and learning.
Encourage the development of high-quality classroom libraries.
Students require access to engaging books and materials, both in print and on the internet. When kids have access to well-designed classroom libraries, they are more likely to interact with books, spend more time reading, have more favourable attitudes toward reading, and achieve better reading levels. Furthermore, research-based classroom libraries aid in the delivery of a well-balanced literacy program. Budget funds, grants, and book drives can all be used to help teachers develop classroom libraries.
Encourage your students to read aloud.
Ask your students to read aloud as it will create an interest in reading. Moreover, the students’ pronunciation will improve, and a feeling of competition will develop among students. Not only did the experts recommend reading aloud at home, but they also recommended it in schools.
Readlearnexcel Concluding Remarks on Pedagogy
Pedagogical can be effective if the teachers wants to implement. Hence, pedagogical approaches can stimulate a child’s growth and encourage them to continue learning. Pedagogy is an important building block for their future because it indicates that they will be enthusiastic about the entire learning process. Teachers should be aware of the importance of a good pedagogical approach to ensure each and every child receives the best possible learning experience.