10 Most Important Reading Comprehension Passages 12th Exams

HBSE Pre-Board Sample Paper Class 12 English (Core) 2022–23/ TIPS TO SCORE MAXIMUM MARKS in exams hbse cbse, english grammar

The 10 Most Important Reading Comprehension Passages for the 12th Exams come under Section-A, reading skills, in BSEH Class 12 English. Reading Comprehension: The BSEH Class 12 English Question Papers will give you a good start on the BSEH Class 12 English Question Paper. The 10 Most Important Reading Comprehension Passages for 12th Exams will help you revise quickly before the class 12 English examination in March 2023.

You will be given the most important questions in the order listed below. Therefore, follow the given timetable to score good marks. You will get all the articles date-wise as given in the table below:

Follow the timetable for the last revision of Class 12 English (most important questions).[ 1.5 HOURS DAILY]
Day Question Topic Marks Readlearnexcel’s Most Important Questions
Day 1, Feb. 7 Question 1 Reading Comprehension 4 10 Most Important Reading Comprehension Passages 12th Exams
Day 2, Feb. 8 Question 2 Note-Making 5 10 Most Important Note-Making Examples: Class 12 Exams Special
Day 3, Feb. 9 Question 3 Grammar 10 English Grammar Exercises: HBSE Revision Class 12 Exams 2023
Day 4, Feb. 10 Question 4 Notice Writing/Advertisements 6 20 Most Important Notices

10 Most Important Advertisements

Day 5, Feb. 11 Question 5 Paragraphs/ Report Writing 5 10 Most Important Paragraphs

10 Most Important Report Writing

Day 6, Feb. 12 Question 6 Letter Writing 5 10 Most Important Letters
Day 7, Feb. 13 Question 7 Reading Comprehension Passage Flamingo 5 10 Reading Comprehension Passage Flamingo
Day 8, Feb. 14 Question 8 Long Answer Question Flamingo 5 10 Long Answer Question Flamingo
Day 9, Feb. 15 Question 9 Short Answer Questions Flamingo 10 20 Short Answer Questions Flamingo
Day 10, Feb. 16 Question 10 Reading Comprehension Stanzas Poetry 5 10 Reading Comprehension Stanzas Poetry
Day 11, Feb. 17 Question 11 Short Answer Questions Poetry 6 12 Short Answer Questions Poetry
Day 12, Feb. 18 Question 12 Long Answer Questions Vistas 5 10  Long Answer Questions Vistas
Day 13, Feb. 19 Question 13 Short Answer Questions Vistas 6 20 Short Answer Questions Vistas
Day 14, Feb. 20 Question 14 MCQ Vistas 3 20 MCQ Vistas

10 Most Important Reading Comprehension Passages 12th Exams

1. Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow( Set B):

Reading Comprehension of Unseen Passage

Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow :
To make our life a meaningful one, we need to mind our thoughts, for our thoughts are the foundations, the inspiration and the motivating power of our deeds. We create our entire world
by the way we think. Thoughts are the causes and the conditions are the effects. Our circumstances and conditions are not dictated by the world outside; it is the world inside us that creates the outside. Self awareness comes from the mind, which means the soul. Mind is the sum total of the state of consciousness grouped under thought, will and feeling. Besides self- onsciousness, we have the power to choose and think. Krishna says, “No man resteth a moment inactive.” Even when inactive on the bodily plane, we are all the time acting on the thought plane. Therefore, if we observe ourselves, we can easily mould our thoughts. If our thoughts are pure and noble, naturally actions follow the same.
Questions : 1 × 4 = 4
(i) How can we make our life meaningful ?
(a) By praying to God
(b) By working hard
(c) By minding our thoughts
(d) By working for the poor

Ans. (c) By minding our thoughts
(ii) What is it that motivates our deeds ?
(a) Our thoughts
(b) Our actions
(c) Our surroundings
(d) Our relations

Ans. (a) Our thoughts
(iii) What constitutes our state of consciousness ?
(a) Our thoughts
(b) Our will
(c) Our feelings
(d) All the above

Ans. (d) All the above
(iv) How can we mould our thoughts ?
(a) By observing our surroundings
(b) By observing our seniors
(c) By observing our juniors
(d) By observing our ourselves

Ans. (d) By observing our ourselves

Check your Reading Comprehension Skills of The given Unseen Passage:

(v) What do our thoughts do?

(vii) Which word in the passage represent ‘controlling ides’?

(viii) What are the result of our thoughts?

2. Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow( Set C):

Reading Comprehension of Unseen Passage

Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow :
People travelling long distances frequently have to decide whether they would prefer to go by land, sea or air. Hardly can any one positively enjoy sitting in a train for more than a few hours. Train compartments soon get cramped and stuffy. It is almost impossible to take your mind off the journey. Reading is only a partial solution, for the monotonous rhythm of the wheels clicking on the rails soon lulls you to sleep. During the day sleep comes in snatches. At night, when you really wish to go to sleep you rarely manage to do so. If you are lucky enough
to get a couchette, you spend half the night staring at the small blue light in the ceiling, or fumbling to find your passport when you cross a frontier. Inevitably you arrive at your destination
almost exhausted. Long car journeys are even more unpleasant, for it is quite impossible even to read. On motorways you can travel fairly safely at high speeds, but more often than not,
the greater part of the journey is spent on narrow, bumpy roads which are crowded with traffic.
Questions : 1 × 4 = 4
(i) Why can’t a railway passenger enjoy sleep during the day ?
(a) People go on talking.
(b) Wheels produce noise.
(c) Sleep comes in snatches.
(d) Whistle breaks sleep.

Ans. (b) Wheels produce noise.
(ii) How does one spend half the night while crossing a frontier ?
(a) Staring at the small red light.
(b) Fumbling to find passport.
(c) Waiting for customs officers.
(d) Guarding your goods.

Ans. (b) Fumbling to find passport.
(iii) How does one feel on reaching the destination after a long train journey ?
(a) Fresh (b) Active
(c) Smart (d) Exhausted

Ans. (d) Exhausted
(iv) How are the long car journeys in comparison to train journeys ?
(a) Pleasant (b) Risky
(c) Unpleasant (d) Smooth

Ans. (c) Unpleasant

Check your Reading Comprehension Skills of The given Unseen Passage:

(v) Which is the best of journey?

(vii) What is the meaning of cramped and stuffy?

(viii) Which word represents ‘uneven’ in the passage?

3. Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow( Set D): Reading Comprehension of Unseen Passages class 12

Three-fourths of the surface of our planet is covered by the sea, which both separates and unites the various races of mankind. The sea is the great highway along which man may journey at his will, the great road that has no walls or hedges hemming it in, and that nobody has to keep in good repair with the aid of pickaxes and barrels of tar and steamrollers. The sea appeals
to man’s love of the perilous and the unknown, to his love of conquest, his love of knowledge, and his love of gold. Its green and grey and blue and purple waters call to him, and bid him fare
forth in quest of fresh fields. Beyond their  horizons, he has found danger and death, glory and gain. In some great continents, such as America and Australia, there are towns and villages many thousands of miles from the coast, whose children have never seen or heard or felt the waves of the sea.
Questions : 1 × 4 = 4
(i) How much of our planet is covered by the sea ?
(a) 33 percent (b) 50 percent
(c) 75 percent (d) 80 percent

Ans. (c) 75 percent
(ii) The sea …………. the various races of mankind.
(a) Separates (b) Unites
(c) Both (a) and (b) (d) Neither (a) and (b)

Ans. (c) Both (a) and (b)
(iii) The sea is the great highway ………… .
(a) that man can travel by at his will.
(b) that has no walls or hedges.
(c) that nobody has to keep in good repair.
(d) All the above

Ans. (b) that has no walls or hedges.
(iv) In some big continents, children have never seen the sea because ………… .
(a) they live very far away from the sea.
(b) they have never heard of the sea.
(c) they are afraid of the sea.
(d) they are poor and have no money to travel.

Ans. (a) they live very far away from the sea.

Check your Reading Comprehension Skills of The given Unseen Passage:

(v) How much area is covered by sea?

(vii) Why is sa called a great highway?

(viii) Which word in the passage have same meaning ‘dangerous’?

4. Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow : Reading Comprehension(BSEH 2019 SET A)

Read the following passage given below and answer the questions that follow :
New Year is the time for resolution. Mentally, at least most of us could compile formidable lists of ‘do’s and don’ts’. The same old favourites recur year in and year out with monotonous regularity. We resolve to get-up early each morning, eat healthy food, exercise, be nice to people we don’t like and find more time for our parents. Past experience has taught us that
certain accomplishments are beyond attainment. If we remain deep rooted liars, it is only because we have so often experienced the frustration that results from failure. Most of us fail in our efforts, at self-improvement because our schemes are too ambitious and we never have time to carry them out. We also ‘make the fundamental error of announcing our resolution to everybody so that we look even more foolish when we slip back into our bad old ways. Aware of these pitfalls, this year I attempted to keep my resolutions to myself. I limited myself to two
modest ambitions, to do physical exercise every morning and to read more in the evening. An overnight party on New Year’s Eve provided me with a good excuse for not carrying out either of these new resolutions on the first day of the year, but on the second, I applied myself diligently to the task. The daily exercise lasted only eleven minutes and I proposed to do them early in the morning before anyone had got up. The self-discipline required to drag myself out of bed eleven minutes earlier than usual was considerable. Nevertheless, I managed to creep down into the living room for two days before anyone found me out. After jumping about on the carpet and twisting the human frame into uncomfortable positions, I sat down at the breakfast table in an exhausted condition. It was this that betrayed me. The next morning the whole family trooped in to watch the performance. That was really unsettling but I fended off the taunts and jibes of the whole family good-humouredly and soon everybody got used to the idea. However, my enthusiasm waned. The time I spent at exercises gradually diminished. Little by little the eleven minutes fell to zero. By January 10th, I was back to where I had started from. I argued that if I spent less time exhausting myself at exercises in the morning, I would keep my mind fresh for reading when I got home from work. Resisting the hypnotising effect of television, I sat, in my room for a few evenings with my eyes glued to a book. One night, however, feeling cold and lonely, I went downstairs and sat in front of the television pretending to read. That proved to be my undoing, for I soon got back to the old bad habit of dozing off in front of the screen. I still haven’t given up my resolution to do more reading. In fact, I have just bought a book entitled ‘How to Read a Thousand Words a Minute’. Perhaps it will solve my problem, but I just have not had time to read it.
Questions : 1 × 4 = 4
(i) What were the writer’s two resolutions ?
(a) Physical exercise in the morning
(b) Read more in the evening
(c) Both (a) and (b)
(d) Not to make more resolutions
Ans. (c) Both (a) and (b)
(ii) How much time did the daily exercise last
initially ?
(a) 10 minutes
(b) 11 minutes
(c) 5 minutes
(d) 8 minutes

Ans. (b) 11 minutes
(iii) How many days did the narrator continue his resolution ?
(a) 8 days
(b) 9 days
(c) 10 days
(d) 7 days

Ans. (c) 10 days
(iv) Which book did the narrator buy ?
(a) How to read a thousand words a minute
(b) How to be a good reader
(c) How to be firm on your resolutions
(d) The importance of exercising

Ans. (a) How to read a thousand words a minute

Check your Reading Comprehension Skills of The given Unseen Passage:

(v) Do we really follow new yer resolution?

(vii) Have you ever made new year resolutions?

(viii) What should be the title of the passage?

5. Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow : Reading Comprehension( BSEH 2019 SET B)

Read the following passage given below and answer the questions that follow :
I had submitted an article ‘Reforming our education system’ recently wherein the need for our educational system to shift its focus from insisting upon remembering to emphasizing or
understanding was stressed upon. This article brought back the memory of an interesting conversation between my daughter and myself in the recent times wherein I had learnt that Economics and Physics were a few of the most difficult subjects for her as she had to mug up the answers. Though I offered to help her out with the immediate problem on hand, I learnt subsequently that many a time it pays to mug up the answer properly because the teachers find it easier to evaluate that way. It seems, the more deviation there is from the way the sentences are framed in the textbook, the more risk one runs of losing marks on that count many a time. This reminded me of a training session I had attended at work wherein we were required to carry out an exercise of joining the dots that were drawn in rows of three without lifting the pen and without crossing the trodden path more than once Though the exercise
seemed quite simple, almost 95 percent of us failed to achieve the required result, no matter how hard we tried. The instructor then informed us cheerily that it happened all the time,
because the dots that appeared to fit into a box like formation do not allow us to think out of the box. That was when I realised that all of us carry these imaginary boxes in our minds. Thanks to our stereotyped upbringing that forces our thinking to conform to a set pattern. “What is the harm in conforming as long as it is towards setting up a good practice ? someone might want to ask. Perhaps, no harm done to others but to the person being confined to “think by rote” may mean being deprived of rising to the heights he/she is capable of rising to, even without the person being aware of the same. If we instil too much fear of failure in the children right from the young age, the urge to conform and play safe starts stifling the creative urge which dares to explore, err and explore again. As we know, most of the great inventions were initially considered to be most outrageous and highly impractical. It is because the persons inventing the same were not bothered about being ridiculed and were brave enough to think of the unthinkable that these inventions came into being. For many children, studies are the most boring aspect of their lives. Learning, instead of fun is being considered the most mundane and avoidable activity. Thanks to the propagators of an educational system which is more information oriented than knowledge oriented. Too much of syllabus, too many students per teacher, lack of enough hands-on exercises, teaching as a routine with the aim of completing the syllabus in time rather than with the goal of imparting knowledge, the curriculum more often than not designed keeping in view the most intelligent student rather than the average student are important factors in this regard. Peer pressure, high expectations of the parents in an extremely competitive environment, the multitude of distractions in an era of technological revolution are adding further to the burden on the young minds. For a change, can we have some English/Hindi poems ickle, tickle and pickle the young minds and send them on a wild goose chase for the pot of gold at the end of a rainbow ? Can we have lessons in History that make the child feel proud of his heritage instead of asking him to mug up the years of the events ? Can the physics and chemistry lessons be taught more in the laboratories than in the classrooms ? Can a system be devised so as to make the educational excursions compulsory for schools so that visits to historical/botanical places are ensured without fail ? Can the educational institutes start off inter school projects on the Internet, the way the schools abroad do, so as to encourage the child to explore on her own and sum up her findings in the form of a report ? Finally, can we make the wonder of the childhood last and get carried forward into the adulthood instead of forcing pre-mature adulthood on children ? I, for one, have realised that it is worth doing so, hence I have asked my child to go ahead by choosing to write the answers on her own, in her own language by giving vent to her most fanciful imagination !
Questions : 1 × 4 = 4
(i) What were the difficult subjects for the narrator’s daughter ?
(a) Biology and Chemistry
(b) Economics and Physics
(c) Political Science and English
(d) History and Maths

Ans. (b) Economics and Physics
(ii) Why does it pay to mug up answers ?
(a) Because teachers find it easy to evaluate
(b) Because students find it easy to write
(c) Because teachers find it easy to teach
(d) Because students find it easy to remember
Ans. (a) Because teachers find it easy to evaluate
(iii) What stifles the creative urge in children ?
(a) The urge to be always right
(b) The urge to do well in everything
(c) The urge to conform and play safe
(d) The urge to take risks

Ans. (c) The urge to conform and play safe
(iv) Learning is now being considered ………… .
(a) an interesting activity
(b) a mundane and avoidable activity
(c) a fun filled activity
(d) an interesting but avoidable activity

Ans. (b) a mundane and avoidable activity

Check your Reading Comprehension Skills of The given Unseen Passage:

(v) Can the educational institutes start off inter school projects on the Internet?

(vii) Students should be allowed to……..

(viii) Learning, instead of fun is being considered the most mundane and avoidable activity. Explain.

6. Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow : ReadLearnExcel HBSE Guess Paper 2022-2023 Class12 English ( BSEH 2019 SET C)

Read the following passage given below and answer the questions that follow :
For four days, I walked through the narrow lanes of the old city, enjoying the romance of being in a city where history still lives – in its cobblestone streets and people riding asses, carrying vine leaves and palm as they once did during the time of Christ. This is Jerusalem, home to the sacred sites of Christianity, Islam and Judaism. This is the place that houses the church of the Holy Sepulchre, the place where Jesus was finally laid to rest. This is also the site of Christ’s crucifixion, burial and resurrection. Built by the Roman Emperor Constantine at the site of an earlier temple to Aphrodite, it is the most venerated Christian shrine in the world. And justifiably so. Here, within the church, are the last five stations of the cross, the 10th station where Jesus was stripped of his clothes, the 11th where he was nailed to the cross, the 12th where he died on the cross, the 13th where the body was removed from the cross, and the 14th, his tomb. For all this weighty tradition, the approach and entrance to the church is nondescript. You have to ask for directions. Even to the devout Christian pilgrims walking along the Via Dolorosa – the Way of Sorrows – first nine stations look clueless. Then a courtyard appears, hemmed in by other buildings and a doorway to one side. This leads to a vast area of huge stone architecture. Immediately inside the entrance, is your first stop. It’s the stone of anointing: this is the place, according to Greek tradition, where Christ was removed from the cross. The Roman Catholics, however, believe it to be the spot where Jesus’ body was prepared for burial by Joseph. What happened next ? Jesus was buried. He was taken to a place outside the city of Jerusalem where other graves existed and there, he was buried in a cave. However, all that is long gone, destroyed by continued attacks and rebuilding; what remains is the massive – and impressive – Rotunda (around building with a dome) that Emperor Constantine built. Under this, and right in the centre of the Rotunda, is the structure that contains the Holy Sepulchre. “How do you know
that this is Jesus’ tomb ?” I asked one of the pilgrims standing next to me. He was clueless, more interested, like the rest of them, in the novelty of it all and in photographing it, than in
its history or tradition. At the start of the first century, the place was a disused quarry outside the city walls. According to the gospels, Jesus’ crucifixion occurred ‘at a place outside the city
walls with graves nearby … ‘ … Archaeologists have discovered tombs from that era, so the site is compatible with the biblical period. The structure at the site is a marble tomb built over
the original burial chamber. It has two rooms, and you enter four at a time into the first of these, the Chapel of the Angel. Here the angel is supposed to have sat on a stone to recount
Christ’s resurrection. A low door made of white marble, partly worn away by pilgrims’ hands, leads to a smaller chamber inside. This is the ‘room of the tomb’, the place where Jesus was
buried. We entered in single file. On my right was a large marble slab that covered the original rock bench on which the body of Jesus was laid. A woman knelt and prayed. Her eyes were wet
with tears. She pressed her face against the slab to hide them, but it only made it worse.
Questions : 1 × 4 = 4
(i) How does Jerusalem still retain the charm of ancient era ?
(a) There are narrow lanes
(b) Roads are paved with cobblestones
(c) People can be seen riding asses
(d) All of the above

Ans. (d) All of the above
(ii) Holy Sepulchre is sacred to __
(a) Christianity
(b) Islam
(c) Judaism
(d) Both (a) and (c)

Ans. (d) Both (a) and (c)
(iii) Why does one have to constantly ask for directions to the church ?
(a) Its lanes are narrow
(b) Entrance to the church is nondescript
(c) People are not tourist friendly
(d) Everyone is lost in enjoying the romance of the place

Ans. (b) Entrance to the church is nondescript
(iv) Where was Jesus buried ?
(a) In a cave
(b) At a place outside the city
(c) In the Holy Sepulchre
(d) Both (a) and (b)

Ans. (c) In the Holy Sepulchre

Check your Reading Comprehension Skills of The given Unseen Passage:

(v) Jerusalem is the land of…….

(vii) Write synonyms of burial and crucifixion.

(viii) Where is Jesus’ tomb ?

7. Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow : Reading Comprehension Class12 English ( BSEH 2019 SET D)

Read the following passage given below and answer the questions that follow :
We often make all things around us the way we want them. Even during our pilgrimages, we have begun to look for whatever makes our heart happy, gives comfort to our body and peace to
the mind. It is as if external solutions will fulfil our needs, and we do not want to make any special efforts even in our spiritual search. Our mind is resourceful – it works to find shortcuts in simple and easy ways. Even pilgrimages have been converted into tourism opportunities. Instead, we must awaken our conscience and souls and understand the truth. Let us not tamper with either our own nature or that of the Supreme. All our cleverness is rendered ineffective when nature does a dance of destruction. Its fury can and will wash away all imperfections. Indian culture, based on Vedic treatises, assists in human evolution, but we are now using our entire energy in distorting these traditions according to our convenience instead of making efforts to make ourselves worthy of them. The irony is that humans are not even aware of the complacent attitude they have allowed themselves to sink to. Nature is everyone’s Amma and her fierce blows will  sooner or later corner us and force us to understand this truth. Earlier, pilgrimages to places of spiritual significance were rituals that were undertaken when people became free from their worldly duties. Even now some seekers take up this pious religious journey as a path to peace and knowledge. Anyone travelling with this attitude feels and travels with only a few
essential items that his body can carry. Pilgrims traditionally travelled light, on foot, eating light, dried chickpeas and fruits, or whatever was available. Pilgrims of olden days did not feel the need to stay in special AC bedrooms, or travel by luxury cars or indulge themselves with delicious food and savouries. Pilgrims traditionally moved ahead, creating a feeling of belonging towards all, conveying a message of brotherhood among all they came across whether in small caves, ashrams or local settlements. They received the blessings and congregations of yogis and mahatmas in return while conducting the dharma of their pilgrimage. A pilgrimage is like penance or sadhana to stay near nature and to experience a feeling of oneness with it, to keep the body healthy and fulfilled with the amount of food, while seeking freedom from attachments and yet remaining happy while staying away from relatives and associates. This is how a pilgrimage should be rather than making it like a picnic by taking a large group along and living in comfort, packing in entertainment, and tampering with environment. What is worse is giving a boost to the ego of having had a special darshan. Now alms are distributed, charity done while they brag about their spiritual experiences! We must embark on our spiritual journey by first understanding the grace and significance of a pilgrimage and following it up with the prescribed rules and rituals – this is what translates into the ultimate and beautiful medium of spiritual evolution. There is no justification for tampering with nature. A pilgrimage is symbolic of contemplation and meditation and acceptance, and is a metaphor for the constant growth or movement and love for nature that we should hold in our hearts. This is the truth!
Questions : 1 × 4 = 4
(i) How can a pilgrim keep his body healthy ?
(a) By travelling light
(b) By eating small amounts of food
(c) By keeping free from attachments
(d) Both (a) and (b)

Ans. (c) By keeping free from attachments
(ii) How do we satisfy our ego ?
(a) By having a special darshan
(b) By distributing alms
(c) By treating it like a picnic
(d) Both (a) and (c)

Ans. (d) Both (a) and (c)
(iii) Who is referred to as ‘everyone’s Amma’ in this passage ?
(a) Humans
(b) Animals
(c) Nature
(d) Insects

Ans. (c) Nature
(iv) What have been converted into tourism opportunities ?
(a) Pilgrimages
(b) Temples
(c) Gurudwaras
(d) Churches

Ans. (a) Pilgrimages

Check your Reading Comprehension Skills of The given Unseen Passage:

(v) How do pilgrimages help us?

(vii) What is the meaning of pilgrimages?

(viii) Opposite word of ego.

8. Reading Comprehension: Environmental Pollution

8. Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow : Reading Comprehension(BSEH 2018 SET A)

Pollution has been defined as the addition of any substance or form of energy to the environment at a rate faster than the environment can accommodate its dispersion, breakdown, recycling or storage in some harmless form. In simpler terms, pollution means the poisoning of the environment by man. Pollution has accompanied mankind ever since large groups of people settled down in one place for a long time. It was not a serious problem during primitive times when there was more than ample space available for each individual or group. As the human population boomed, pollution became a major problem and has remained as one ever since. Cities of ancient times were often unhealthy places, fouled by human wastes and debris. Such unsanitary conditions favoured the outbreak of diseases that killed or maimed many people living in those times. The rapid advancement of technology and industrialization today is something that man can be proud of. However, it has brought along with it many undesirable results, one of which is the pollution of our environment. Humanity today is threatened by the dangers of air, water, land and noise pollution. The air that we breathe is heavily polluted with toxic gases, chemicals and dust. These consist of the discharge from industrial factories and motor vehicles. The emission of tetraethyl lead and carbon monoxide from exhaust fumes is a major cause for concern too. Outdoor burning of trash and forest fires has also contributed to air pollution. They cause the smarting of the eyes, bouts of coughing and respiratory problems. Owing to the burning of fossil fuels, the level of carbon monoxide in the air is more than desirable. Too high a level of carbon dioxide will cause the Earth’s temperature to rise. The heat will melt the polar caps, thus raising the sea level and causing massive floods around the world. The burning of fuels also produces gases which form acid rain. Acid rain has a damaging effect on water, forest and soil, and is harmful to our health. Man has reached the moon and
invented supersonic crafts that can travel faster than the speed of sound. However, these inventions emit pollutants which contribute to the depletion of the ozone layer. This depletion of ozone, which absorbs the harmful rays of sun and prevents them from reaching the Earth, will have drastic effects on all living things. It will lead to a rise in the number of people suffering from skin cancer. Water pollution has become widespread too. Toxic waste has found its way into our lakes,  streams, rivers and oceans. This waste is released by factories and sea going vessels. Spillage of oil by tankers during the recent Gulf War has caused irreparable damage to marine life. Thousands of sea animals have died or were poisoned by the pollutants in their natural habitat. As such, it is dangerous for humans to consume sea food caught in polluted waters. Dumping of used cars, cans, bottles, plastic items and all other kinds of waste material is an eyesore. Much of the refuse is not biodegradable and this interferes with the natural breakdown process of converting substance from a harmful form to a non harmful one. As such, it becomes a hazard to one’s health. We are often faced with noises from construction sites, jet planes and traffic jam. We may be unaware of it but noise pollution has been attributed to causing a loss of hearing, mental disturbances and poor performance at work. To control environmental pollution, substances which are hazardous and can destroy life must not be allowed to escape into the environment. This calls for united decision making among the world leaders and a public awareness of the dangers of pollution.
Questions : 1 × 4 = 4
(i) Pollution was not a serious problem in ancient times because :
(a) people were unsettled
(b) lot of space was available
(c) population was less
(d) all of the above

Ans. (b) lot of space was available
(ii) Acid rain does not cause :
(a) smarting of eyes
(b) water pollution
(c) soil pollution
(d) damage to forest

Ans. (a) smarting of eyes
(iii) The number of people suffering from skin cancer will rise because :
(a) man has invented supersonic aircraft’s
(b) ozone layer is depleting
(c) no efforts are being made to repair the ozone layer
(d) inventions emit pollutants that deplete the ozone layer which absorbs the cancer causing rays

Ans. (b) ozone layer is depleting
(iv) If the refuse is not biodegradable, it :
(a) becomes an eyesore
(b) interferes with natural breakdown
(c) remains a health hazard
(d) both (b) and (c)

Ans. (a) becomes an eyesore

Check your Reading Comprehension Skills of The given Unseen Passage:

(v) Define pollution.

(vii) Explain the effects of acid rain.

(viii) What are the after effects of water pollution?

9. Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow : ReadLearnExcel HBSE Guess Paper 2022-2023 Class12 English ( BSEH 2018 SET B)

Reading Comprehension: Conditions of Women in India/Importance of Women in our Society

“It is impossible to think about the welfare of the world unless the condition of women is improved. It is impossible for a bird to fly on only one wing.”
– Swami Vivekananda
Women are not born, but made. What is better than India to exemplify this statement by Simone de Beauvoir. With the whole world celebrating International Women’s Day with great pomp and show, it would be only apt to analyse the position and space Indian women occupy today, and comparing it to the times 60 years ago when the country had just gained independence. With the women participating in nationalist movements to being pushed into domestic household place, to their resurgence as the super-women today, women in our country have
seen it all. There have been innumerable debates about gender in India over the years. Much of it includes women’s position in society, their education, health, economic position, gender equality, etc. What one can conclude from such discussions is that women have always held a certain paradoxical position in our developing country. On the one hand, the country has seen an increased percentage of literacy among women, and women are allowed to enter into professional fields, while on the other hand the practices of female infanticide, poor health conditions and lack of education still persist.

Even the patriarchal ideology of the home being a woman’s real domain and marriage being her ultimate destiny hasn’t changed much. The matrimonial advertisements, demanding girls of the same caste, with fair skin and slim figure, or the much criticized fair and lovely ads, are indicators of the slow changing social mores. If one looks at the status of women then and now, one has to look at two sides of the coin; one side which is promising, and one side which is bleak. When our country got its independence, the participation of women nationalists was widely
acknowledged. When the Indian Constitution was formulated, it granted equal rights to women, considering them legal citizens of the country and as an equal to men in terms of freedom and opportunity. The sex ratio of women at that time was slightly better than what it is today, standing at 945 females per 1000 males. Yet the conditions of women screamed a different reality. They were relegated to their households, and made to submit to the male-dominated society, as has always been prevalent in our country. Indian women, who fought as an equal to men in the nationalist struggle, were not given that free public space anymore. They became homemakers, and were mainly meant to build a strong home to support their men who were to build the new independent country. Women were reduced to being secondary citizens. The national female literacy rate was an alarmingly low 8.9 percent. The Gross Enrollment Ratio (GER) for girls was 24.8 percent at primary level and 4.6 percent at the upper primary level (in the 11 – 14 years age group). There existed insoluble social and cultural barriers to education of women and access to organised schooling.
Questions : 1 × 4 = 4
(i) The writer says that the women have seen it all because :
(a) They participated in the nationalist movements.
(b) They were pushed into household space.
(c) They have become superwomen today.
(d) All of the above.

Ans. (d) All of the above.
(ii) Pick one statement which brings out the paradoxical nature of women’s position in society today :
(a) They are entering professional fields and becoming literate.
(b) They lack education and female infanticide is still rampant.
(c) They are still victims of patriarchal mindset.
(d) While they are allowed to enter professional fields they are still victims of patriarchal mindsets.

Ans. (d) While they are allowed to enter professional fields they are still victims of patriarchal mindsets.
(iii) The Indian Constitution did not ensure :
(a) that women get equal rights.
(b) that they were considered equal to men.
(c) that the sex ratio would be 945 females to 1000 males.
(d) that they were legal citizens of India.

(iv) Despite the provisions of the constitution :
(a) women were relegated to the household.
(b) women were not allowed free space.
(c) women were dictated by patriarchy.
(d) all of the above.

Ans. (d) all of the above.

Title of the paragraph: State of Women in India

10. Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow : Class12 English ( BSEH 2018 SET C)

Reading Comprehension: The Russian Revolution 

Russia in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries was a massive empire, stretching from Poland to the Pacific, and home in 1914 to 165 million people of many languages, religions and cultures. Ruling such a massive state was difficult, and the long term problems within Russia were eroding the Romanov monarchy. In 1917 this decay finally produced a revolution which swept the old system away. Several key fault lines can be identified as long term causes, while the short term trigger is accepted as being World War – I. It’s important to remember Tsarist Russia collapsed under its own flaws, with the top rending, not by an attack from people at the bottom, e.g. workers. That (and Lenin) would come later in 1917, when the Tsar was gone. The
revolution was also not inevitable: the Tsars could have reformed, but the last ones didn’t want to and went backwards. It cost them their lives. In theory their life had improved in 1861, before which they were serfs who were owned and could be traded by their landowners. The year 1861 saw the serfs freed and issued with small amounts of land, but in return they had to pay back a sum to the government, and the result was a mass of small farms deeply in debt. The state of agriculture in Russia was poor, using techniques deeply out of date and with little hope of improving thanks to the widespread illiteracy and no capital to invest. Families lived just above the subsistence level, and around 50% of the families had a member who had left the village  to find other work, often in the towns.

As the central Russian population boomed, land became scarce. Their life was in sharp contrast to the rich landowners, who held 20% of the land in large estates and were often members of the Russian upper class. The western and southern reaches of the massive Russian Empire were slightly different, with a larger number of better off peasants and large commercial farms. The result was, by 1917, a central mass of disaffected peasants were angry at increased attempts to control them, and at people who profited from the land without directly working on it.
The common peasant mindset was firmly against developments outside the village, and desired autonomy. Oddly, although the vast majority of Russia in population was rural peasants, and urban expeasants, the upper and the middle classes knew little of real peasant life, but a lot about myths: of down to earth, angelic, pure commercial life, etc. Legally, culturally, socially, the peasants in over half a million settlements were organised by centuries of community rule, the mirs, which were separate from elites and the middle class. But this was not a joyous, lawful commune, it was a desperate struggling system fuelled with the human weakness of rivalry, violence and theft, and everywhere was run by elder patriarchs. A break was occurring among the
peasants between the elders and a large number of young literate peasants, due to the culture of deeply ingrained and frequent violence. The peasants were not without a world view, and it was a mixture of odd folk memory, custom, and opposition to the interference of the Tsar – Inside vs outside. Stolypin’s lands reforms of the years before 1917 attacked peasant concept of family ownership and tried to capitalise it; revolutionary peasants often went back to communal systems. This wasn’t so much class but a view based on justice of poor vs strong. In
central Russia, the peasant population was rising and land was running out, so eyes were on the elites who were forcing the debt ridden peasants to sell land for commercial use. Even more peasants travelled to the cities in search of work. There they urbanised and looked negatively on the peasants left behind.
Questions : 1 × 4 = 4
(i) The decay that caused the Russian revolution was due to :
(a) massive empire
(b) failure of the czars to reform themselves
(c) world War-I
(d) all of the above

Ans. (d) all of the above
(ii) The agriculture was in bad condition as :
(a) farmers were in debt
(b) techniques were outdated
(c) both (a) and (b)
(d) serfs could be traded by their landowners

Ans. (c) both (a) and (b)
(iii) Which of the following was the trigger for the revolution ?
(a) World War – I
(b) urbanisation of the peasants
(c) break between the elders and the young
(d) excessive control of the upper classes

Ans. (c) break between the elders and the young
(iv) The peasants were organised into communes by :
(a) mirs
(b) farmers
(c) middle classes
(d) elites

Ans. (a) mirs


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